My Fast Action Links extension also provides actions - and integrates with CiviRules. It seems like it would be worth adding support for this new approach into Fast Action Links so that, e.g., I could pass parameters in.
I suspect your approach to this problem will be different from mine, and you've already written a proof-of-concept, but there may be some ideas to be gleaned from reading my code if you feel the need.
Is this a possible CiviCRM native replacement for webform_civicrm?
Not directly as the main purpose is to process the data coming from a form (which could be submitted over REST to Civicrm). However this could be part of a native form builder solution.